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In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song.The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.
In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable.
The Song Dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao.
The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally-disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States.
The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture.
In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin unified core China and established the first Chinese dynasty.